Norms and Standards

The following standards apply to films:

Type Norm
Tensil strength
DIN 53455
Elongation at break
DIN 53455
Tear resistance
DIN 53363, ASTM D1922E
Modulus of elasticity
DIN 53457
DIN 53445
Impact strength
DIN 53453
Bending strength
DIN 53262
Coefficient of friction
DIN 53375
Resistance to cold
DIN 53375
DIN 67530, ASTM D2457,
Transparency, turbidity
DIN 5036, ASTM D1003-61
Refractive index
DIN 53491
Specific resistance
DIN 40634
Durface resistance
DIN 53482
Dielectric strength
DIN 40634
Dielectric constant
DIN 40634
Dissipation factor
DIN 40634
Water vapour permeability
DIN 53122
Gas permeability
DIN 53122, DIN 53380

Overview of important standards related to electrical insulation:

  • IEC 60085 Electrical insulation - Thermal evaluation and designation

  • IEC 60112 Method for the determination of the proof and the comparative tracking indices of solid insulating materials

  • IEC 60172 Test procedure for the determination of the temperature index of enamelled and tape wrapped winding wires

  • IEC 60216 Electrical insulating materials - Thermal endurance properties

  • IEC 60243 Electric strength of insulating materials - Test methods

  • IEC 60343 Recommended test methods for determining the relative resistance of insulating materials to breakdown by surface discharges

  • IEC 60454 Specifications for pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes for electrical purposes

  • IEC 60505 Evaluation and qualification of electrical insulation systems

  • IEC 60674 Specification for plastic films for electrical purposes

  • IEC 61234 Method of test for the hydrolytic stability of electrical insulating materials

  • IEC 61857 Electrical insulation systems - Procedures for thermal evaluation

  • IEC 61858 Electrical insulation systems - Thermal evaluation of modifications to an established electrical insulation system (EIS)

  • IEC/TS 61934 Electrical insulating materials and systems - Electrical measurement of partial discharges (PD) under short rise time and repetitive voltage impulses

  • IEC 62068 Electrical insulating materials and systems - General method of evaluation of electrical endurance under repetitive voltage impulses

  • EN 61558 Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products

  • UL746B Standard for Polymeric Materials - Long Term Property Evaluations

  • UL 1446 Standard for Systems of Insulating Materials - General

  • ASTM D 2275 Standard Test Method for Voltage Endurance of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials Subjected to Partial Discharges (Corona) on the Surface

The international “adhesive tape standard” IEC 60454

The IEC 60454 series of standards describes common technical adhesive tapes that are intended for applications in electrical engineering (self-adhesive tapes for electrical applications).

Part 1 of the standard describes the general requirements for various adhesive tapes.

Part 2 presents the corresponding test procedures. Along with minimum mechanical values, typical details include the disruptive discharge voltage (dielectric strength), the electrolytic corrosive effect and the long-term thermal behaviour.

In part 3, the typical values for the insulation material (adhesive tape carrier) and adhesive are specified in various material sheets.

Fire protection classes in accordance with DIN 4102 (e.g. B1)

The flammability of materials is classified in the construction sector according to DIN 4102, among other standards.

Building materials are divided according to the classifications in DIN 4102-4. If a building material is not listed there, it requires a corresponding certificate of usability in accordance with the regional building regulations. In other industrial sectors, classification according to the burning properties is usually sufficient with no further usability certification.

The flammability classes are organised as follows:

  • Fire protection class A comprises materials that are non-flammable. These include concrete, sand, gravel, construction ceramics, steel, cast iron and cellular glass.

  • Fire protection class A1 Non-flammable materials with no organic components, such as mineral fibre components or glass wool.

  • Fire protection class A2 These are non-flammable materials that are combined with organic, flammable components. Examples include polystyrene concrete, plasterboard sheets and mineral wool.

  • Fire protection class B comprises materials that are flammable.

  • Fire protection class B1 This class covers materials with low flammability. These may be rigid foam plastics, fire-proof wooden materials or adhesive tapes with corresponding classification. The fire must extinguish itself when the source of ignition is removed. In the test known as the fire tunnel test, the flue gas temperature is measured (below 200 °C), together with the remaining length of test material that has not burnt.

  • Fire protection class B2 This covers normally flammable materials such as wooden components over 2 mm thick

  • Fire protection class B3 This covers flammable materials. They play no role in standard fire protection considerations as they have the opposite effect to the protection required.